Gates, grills, fences and railings are the materials widely used in the architecture which are made of solid metals such as Iron, aluminum or steel etc. Al these elements provide the security and are used for the protection. Good properties of these elements include: the strength, durability and look makes it an excellent choice. Making of all this element is quite difficult and require skills with some additional tools and resources. The property of good protection along with security enhances the look and value. Gate
It provides an additional security and protection to a property with great look. The property of steel is the best sustainable choice which is expensive than iron but it has low maintenance cost compared to the iron as it oxidize over time and require paint for protection over time. Making of steel is complex but can also be done by own self, if one have necessary materials and tools.
Gate Types Gates are different from the doors which can be found in different places such as city entrance, park, zoo air port protected areas etc. Some of the gates are categorized by working mechanism such as swinging, sliding and rolling etc but following are different types of gates according to the location and material or design: · City Gate: Most of the cities had gates in the past which were mainly built due to wars, trade, safety and security mainly occupied by forces. City gate represents ornamental and architecture values of the city and culture. Many of the ancient gates have been removed and destroyed while some the gates are still remaining such Gate of Agnou in Morocco. Gate of Agnou in Morocco · Hampshire gate: These are gates where occasional access is required with least traffic control of humans and animals. These gates are cheap and simple to make. The gates are common in rural areas and can be built along with the fence covering wider area than other gates. · Turnstyl: These gates are designed to allow one person at a time which are common in train stations, bus stations, malls, airports and some areas that require security check. Turnstyl are also used as a fare gate. · Modern Gates: Modern gates are common consisting of different functions and designs. These are rigid gates that require strong materials such as wood, iron or steel. These are gives maximum security and come in different structural designs and colors. These gates have different applications that ranges from parks, zoo, garden, garage, mall, superstore, institutes, cantonment area etc. The most common gates are manually functioned while some of the gate are driven by electricity either by manual operation or can also be automatic.
- Other: Other gates include bump gates that are designed with self closing system normally by attaching the springs that force gate to shut back. Apart from bump gates it also include kissing gates and children gate that is designed for the protection of children from harmful areas to them such as stairs.
Grille The opening of several slits side by side in w metal sheet, wall or other barrier is known as grill which allows air and water to let in or out and block larger objects. It is decorated by metal wood or stone that allows the scenery to be visible from inside. It is also used as a barrier or simply for decoration and making the grill is known as grill work. It can do the same work of the window and can be used as decorative in automobiles. The size of the grilles may vary from of a small window to the complete protection wall. In past, all of the grills were made of the solid concrete to enhance the structural beauty which was replaced by the wood and now metals but it is still used around the world. The major use of grilles is used on the country borders which help to protect the country and also used in prison to let the prisoners in the capacity. The grille can also be used in cages of birds and other small animals that have small openings with limited strength. The grills can also be used in cars, chimneys, exhausts and silencers. Fence
The outdoor area enclosed by the structure mainly the outdoor area is known as fence. The structure is usually made of board, wire, rail or net. The fencing has different functions and uses. In agriculture it is used to prevent the farms and livestock from the predators. It is also used to reduce the level of noise in machines, roads or high noisy area which can also be called as acoustic fencing. The fencing is used for security of the place. It can also be temporary that provide safety for time being mainly used during the construction unless the construction work is finished. The fencing is also used to protect the children or trespassers from the perimeters. It is also used for the decoration of gardens and landscapes. The railing is also the type of the fencing that is used for the safety of heights and fall protection from the edges of stairs. It is used in railways, balcony, bridge or roofs. The fencing can be made by the brushwood connected by the wires or by the woven wires alone. Fencing can also be made by using the boards or the concrete. Fencing can be electric that is used for high protection and safety. The fences should be used in places of high risks such as movable machineries, industrial plants, explosive factories, high noise area, airports, zoos, police stations, military checkpoints, construction sites etc. Railings
Railings are designed for the safety and usually of two types that are guardrail and hand rail. Guardrail is used to keep people away from the vehicles or protection against heights. The handrail is usually not much restrictive but supportive and also protective by a boundary. The railings are mainly used in public places for the safety and protection against the accidents or falling. The height always makes the falling possible but to avoid the possibility railings are used as a guard. The railings can be used in building, stairway. The residential guardrail can also be made by the woods and other railings can also be made by using cables. The protection used in observation tower of space needle or Eiffel tower are exaggerated and give a look of a fence or cage which can also be used in bridges to prevent overpasses, suicides and accidents. The railings give protection but in some cities it has also been the case of accidents where vehicles are struck against the pedestrian railings. The railing is also used for the fall protection system for the occupation that carries work at height such as construction or maintenance workers, painters etc. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) give specific guidelines on the railings and safety of workers working at height. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) provides further safety codes. A rail designed to be grasped by hand so as to provide support and stability is known as handrail. These are commonly used in the ascending or descending elevations such as escalators or stairways. The handrail can be used in slippery surfaces and automobiles to retain the inertia. Handrail is installed according to the height of the people. It is important to consider the children with the design of handrail as in most of the design the children could pass though it and may not be able to provide safety. The small height handrail for children should be designed in schools or play areas. In some places both designs can be placed that can be used by children and adults. Market Projections
The manufacturing of gates, fences, grilles and railings need strong materials and mostly made by the steel. The steel production was recorded more than 1.4 billion metric tons. The urbanizing growth factors such as increase in demand for land use, architecture and construction will fuel the demand of steel manufacturing in future which will also be used in substitution of wood having serious concerns. However the shift will slightly be deviated by the polymer industry as manufacturing of grilles, fences and railing are using plastic products. China which is leading along with EU, Japan, India and USA are the major exporter and producer of steel. The key performers in steel production include: ArcelorMittal, Baosteel, Posco, Nippon Steel Corp and JFE Holdings. The extra growth of these elements is more likely to be seen in Asia, Latin and Central America and Africa because of the increasing safety awareness and increasing demands of construction to adjust the increasing population which is more in these areas. The market of steel specifically in making gates, fences, grilles and railings will rely upon the local manufacturer and suppliers. However demand for key producers will still be retain by increasing demands from Middle East.