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Gearbox, Axle, Sprocket & Gear Parts Gearbox is a power or force transmission system, which is done by the controlled application through gears and gear trains that allows speed and torque conversion from one power source to another. One moving device or gear derives other devices through gears and connected chains that rotate in the opposite directions. The central shaft for the rotation of gear or wheel is known as axle. The axle is fixed to the wheels move with the wheels or move around the wheels. Before the bearings and bushings were used at the mounting points to support the axle but now the bearings and bushings is inside the hole that drive wheel to rotate around it. Wheel with teeth or cogs that stick the chain is known as sprocket. The chain passes over the sprocket differentiate it from the gears as they are not meshed together and also from pulley that it is not smooth. Rotating machine part with cut teeth and cogs which are connected with other toothed part or wheel that transform the torque is known as gear or cogwheel. Industry Trends Industrial gears have been adding properties such as strong metallic compositions that are more durable. The gears play vital role in industrial processes and increase in industrial process and transformation to mechanization has increased the demand for industrial gears. The market growth for industrial gears will increase by 2023. The demand of quality products in industry in also increasing that follows international standards such as ISO 9001:2015, American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) and DIN standards. The gears market will grow by increase in industrial process of steel manufacturing, engineering industries, paper, sugar, flour mills and rubber etc. These industries demands gears of all types that vary in shape, size and design. Conveyors drivers, marine drives, grinders and industrial gearboxes are some of the example that uses gears. The gears manufacturing is also done in small shops that develop and supply gears in industries with installation of the transmission system. Rigid machine construction and economics of production are main factors that describe the various technologies in this sector. Other factors such as mechanical loads, climatic stress, service life and noise emissions are also required to be ensured by the vendors in market. Increase in disposal income along with rising population in developing economies such as China, India and Brazil have forced some industries to increase their facilities in meeting consumers’ demands. Industries such as textile, oil and gas, paper, pulp and rubber and food manufacturing have resulted major growth that have also increased the market for industrial gear. The cost of industrial gear is sensitive and in direct relation with raw materials such metal which will increase the price and may hinder market growth. Vendors focus on specific requirements such as size, speed, design, shape of the gears to remain in the competition.  The demand of industrial gear is highest in North America and Europe due to the technological advancement followed by Asia pacific which will show prominent demand in future. Investment is high for research and development in sprocket industries. Other factors that has increased the growth and development of sprocket include limit cost, change in commodity price, label brands and completion in sprocket market. The sprocket industry propelled the growth at rate of 2.09 % by 2016 that accounts as 348 million dollars from 328 million dollars in 2013.  The market is expected to show further growth in future. The drive type axle recorded as 40 % of share of total revenue in axle market in 2015. The systems have been incorporated by various shafts to increase the efficiency, power and movement control. The drive shafts have been widely used in automobiles to control movement by engine power turning axle. Increase in production and sales market of automobiles is directly related to the demand of automotive axle and propeller shafts. The demand of peaceful cabin that does not create sound and increase in comfort of vehicles is also highest among customers that will force industries to develop feasible axle and shafts. The maintenance cost for vehicle is also considered when it comes to the production of axle and market. Increase in raw material price such as of steel and other metals can decrease the market growth. The fuel efficiency consciousness is also increasing that will direct manufacturers to produce axles of lighter weight and low cost and better performance. The all wheel connection of axle is highly demanded in North America and Europe and will also increase the growth of axles. The share for gearbox has been increased by the technological advancement to increase energy efficiency. The speed reducing technology with high torque, smooth running, maintenance free cost, low cost or high load capacity are main factors to be considered by the consumer. The automation will widely use gearbox in conveyor systems, assembly line, and packaging will increase the market share of gearbox. Gearbox is also been substituted by direct drive system can hinder its market growth. The substitution of gearbox has various benefits such as reduction of weight and complexity including with energy efficiency as it does not allow energy loss. The direct drive system include coil driven to permanent magnet has resulted in reducing cost for the system which can widely affect gearbox market. The direct drive system has been simulated with software that allows accurate power conversions.             The market revenue share of planetary precision gearbox accounted 70 % in 2015. The angular arrangements between the drive and output shaft has been fixed in right angle gearboxes. The products are flexible according to the construction and application types and will increase the growth for new manufacturing strategies.  Increase in automation will drive the steady growth for gearboxes. Decreasing operational cost and increasing efficiency will also spur the growth of gear boxes. The US market share of precision gearbox accounted over 80 % in total North American revenue. China accounted 270 million dollars in 2015and expected to show highest growth. China market is also recorded to increase 7 % in 2016 since 2000. The US standards for gearbox with measuring temperature class, coolant temperatures, rise temperature ranges have been adopted throughput the world to monitor the performance or maint4ece requirement. The industry requires high cost on research and development and the market is also segmented by the local manufacturers that will affect the revenue of key players in market. Future prospects Market of Gear Motors is expected to grow at CAGR of 6.8 % in 2025 which will account 32.9 billion dollars. Sprocket market will reach 384 million dollars in 2021. The axle demand is related to the global production with engineering advancements to increase efficiency in vehicles and will grow at CAGR of 8.22 % in 2012 which will account 58.07 billion dollars whereas the rare axle is expected to reach 57.77 billion dollar in 2024. Asia will contribute the growth of rear axle market by 4.9 % in 2024 Use of rare axle will be highest in passenger cars that will contribute the highest market segment for rare axle. The number of passenger will rise in countries such as United States, United Kingdom, China, India and Japan that will increase the demand for passenger cars and indirectly of rare axle. The passenger cars were recorded as 68 million which will reach to 91 million by 2022. The player of axle and propeller shaft is developing the products continuously and the expansion account for 50 % of total market strategies. The chart below shows the changing trend of axle and propeller market. The helical gearbox is accounted to grow at CAGR of 4.67 % by 2020 and the robotic precision gear box will show the growth around CAGR of 6.5 % in 2024. The gearbox in aircraft will reach to 4.53 billion dollars by 2022. Target Markets Gear motor market according to the type include: helical gearbox, planetary gearbox, worm and bevel gear motors. The usage of gear in industrial process include: Agriculture, chemical, petrochemical, construction, food manufacturing, machinery, oil and gas, power generation and others. Market segment for Axle is defined in figure below: Key Players Major manufacturers of gears include; General Motors, Volkswagen and ZF Friedrichshafen, DTR, LIEBHERR, GMTA, Birchwood, Nordex, McINNES Rolled Rings, Gearshine, Hainbuch and Hagong, ABB, Siemens AG, Bison Group, Eaton, Bauer Gear Motor, BFT Automation U.K. Ltd. Key player of sprocket include: Tsubaki, Martin Sprocket & Gear, SCS, Katayama, Linn Gear, SKF, Renold, Renqiu Chuangyi, G&G Manufacturing, Allied Locke, Xinghua Donghua Gear, , ABL Product, , B&B Manufacturing, Katayama, WM Berg and ZF AG. Major companies manufacturing in the rear axle include: Meritor, American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Dana Holding Corporation, Daimler Trucks North America LLC, and ROC Spicer Ltd. The key market players of gearbox are Rexnord Corporation, Bonfiglioli Riduttori, Siemens AG, Emerson Electric Company, SEW Eurodrive Group and ABB Group. Some of the local vendors include: David Brown Engineering, Cone Drive Operations, Oerlikon Graziano, Curtis Machine Company, , Brevini Power Transmission, Drive Systems and Horsburgh & Scott.