LED, LCD TV and Monitors
In its simplest form, LCD technology is an electronic display science in which electronic impulses are translated into readable configurations. The “configurations” may be letters, numbers, graphics, or pictures. The effect is achieved by sandwiching a special type of liquid with a homogeneous crystal structure between two electrically conducting glass or plastic plates. In order for numbers, letters (alpha-numerics), or graphics to appear, a corresponding pattern has to be etched into the conductively coated front plate of the display. The back plate does not have the same pattern, but should encompass the outline of the overall configuration of the front plate. Industry Analysis
A study of market and technology trends suggests that the long-held belief in the general public's supposed preference for an analogue watch, whether LCD or conventional, was generally unfounded, although a finite segment of the market does clearly indicate that need. The basic reason for this preference was found to be related to watch reading habits and the psychology associated with them. Pilots, for example, prefer to read ranges rather than “absolute” numbers and yet, the mental processing of digits in time components was found to be primarily a matter of conditioning. In contrast to the U.S. LCD industry, all Japanese LCD manufacturers have now signed up under the field effect patents. The LCD market has been termed “the fastest growing” of all electronic display markets. The current market growth rate under a demand pull situation has been estimated at 40 percent. This rate of growth is constrained only by process technology, capacity build-up, and product diversification. Such a seemingly unlimited opportunity encourages market entry and further displacement of substitutes which are currently filling that need. However, even though an initial investment in capital equipment and working capital for the first two years of only about $ 400,000 to $ 500,000 is required, more companies have failed between 1970 and 1978 than remain today in the industry. They failed not because they could not master the technology itself, but because they underestimated the day-to-day process control required through qualified, permanent, and conscientious assembly personnel. Thus, market entry has rapidly diminished over the past three years and industry survivors share the market growth. But lack of market entry and high demand alone do not guarantee a healthy growth rate indefinitely Impact of Technological Advancement
Eventually market saturation is the normal course of events. Fortunately, that is still a long way off and ever increasing volume requirements and new applications provide for long-term growth for all types of display technologies. Relative market shares will be a function of the match between the market application need and the performance characteristics of the display. Competing technologies have not stood still in their respective developments. Special features, combined with cost, and application considerations, will continually challenge the market share position of LCDs. Competing technologies are:
- ECDs - Electrochromic displays.
- VFDs - Vacuum fluorescent displays.
- LEDs - Light emitting diode displays.
- GDDs - Gas (or plasma) discharge displays.
- ELDs - Electroluminescent, displays.
None of these display technologies will displace LCDs completely, but they will, through product improvements and periodic price plays, affect LCD market share. The fact that all of these displays are like LCDs, essentially flat, sandwiched devices with varying thicknesses— an important factor in “packaging” (i.e., mounting displays into microprocessor equipment) makes them viable alternatives from a user's standpoint. However, there are other, more significant features of each which set one display apart from another and will become the decisive factors in the purchasing process. Most important for any display is readability, be it a CRT (cathode ray tube, as used in television sets), an LCD, or any other display. Market Trends
The global size for electronic display market was accounted as 313.5 billion dollars in 2014. The applications of electronic displays have been widely increased by expansion of consumer electronics industry, technological advancement and increase in end use segments. The emergence of wide applications of electronic industries in demanding products such as tablets, smart phones, smart watches, televisions and other display screens has increased the growth of electronic display. The trend will continuously increase in the future and different other innovations and technical advancements are expected. Manufacturers of electronic display have to follow international regulations such as waste electronics and electrical equipment (WEEE) and Restriction of Hazardous substances (RoHS). The regulations and standards will affect the growth of these accessories but smart disposal techniques and recycling can remove the hindrance. The development of technology that has introduced high resolution displays such as OLED and AMOLED has increased the market revenue. These technologies are associated with high cost which is expected to increase further and affect the market growth. The market share of Asia Pacific was recorded 140 billion dollars in 2014 which has been further increased. Asia pacific has advantage of low manufacturing cost and less stringent regulations which led major manufacturers to establish the market which has driven the industrial growth in the region. North America is also expected to grow at dominant level by increasing high disposable income and improvements of lifestyle which will generate huge demand for the advanced display based applications. The market size for LED (Light emitting Diode) was recorded as 4,17 billion dollars in 2015. Technology for LED is continuously improving with introduction of high resolution power and energy efficiency. The technology contribution is widely favoring the market to grow extensively. Market share of Asia was recorded as 45 % in 2015 which is expected to grow at CAGR of 17 % by 2024. China and India will have the major contribution in regional growth of LED displays. LED demand in different consumer electronics such as laptops, Smartphone, monitors, tablets and TV will increase the growth of LED market throughout the world. However, new technologies such as OLED can affect the growth of conventional LED. LED has also major application in lighting and can be segmented in to automotive, household, streets and others. The outdoor applications of LED have been widely increased in North America, Europe and Asia. The market size of global smart TV was accounted as 135.51 billion in 2016. The demand and growth for smart TV was increased by the preference of customer. However, the market demand was still highest of the pay TV which was recorded s 210.99 billion dollars in 2016. The market has reached to the saturation part of the world but the preference of smart TV can alter the market growth. The HD resolution in TV is also having the positive stance for the market. Market players
Key Market players for TV include: Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Panasonic Corporation, Sony Corporation, LG Electronics, Philips electronics and Videocon Industries Limited. These are often considered as global market players but some of the Chinese brands such as Haier Electronics Group Co, Ltd., TCL Corporation and Hisence Group are also emerging with dominant market share by offering products at low cost. Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. has its own line of QLEDs while LG Electronics, Inc and Sony Corporation also have their own series of OLEDs. However, other players, such as Micromax Informatics, TCL Corporation, and Sansui Electric Co., Ltd., are facing a threat from new players foraying into the industry. The products offered by new entrants are cheaper than those offered by major players by approximately USD 32 to USD 156 (depending on the screen size). Electronics and Smartphone manufacturers are signing MOUs with Display Technology Manufacturers to outsource their display related components. For example Apple Inc has a contract of its display screens with LG Electronics and Samsung Electronics as their display technology provides better quality. The manufactures are spending large amount of cost on research and Development remain in the competition. Future Trends of the Industry
Market share of Asia was recorded as 45 % in 2015 which is expected to grow at CAGR of 17 % by 2024. Display is now the essential component of the world and the application has been widely extended to several electronics which will further transform almost all technologies and devices to use electronic displays. The consumer electronics included 50 % of the market revenue for electronic displays in 2014 and is expected to show steady growth in the future. Large scale adoption of digital technology all over the world will have a positive effect on the industry. Expansion of consumer electronics and Technological advancements industry along with increasing applications across different end-use segments of electronic displays are expected to drive the global market growth.