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Metal Scrap and Waste Materials The various production industries all across the globe incorporate the use of numerous types of metals and alloys for carrying out entailed processes of manufacturing. This usually results in residue in the form of waste or scrap metals and materials which can be utilised effectively for other purposes. With the increase in the research studies and emphasis on the notion of sustainability and sustainable use of material resources, the relevant market for the recycling and reuse of the waste materials and scrap metals has been increased over the past few decades. Although not significant at the scale of one machine, the metal wastes generated by large industrial production processes can contribute to millions of tons of metal in the form of shavings or shreds. The relevant market trends, including the supply and demand trends in the relevant industry of metal scrap and waste materials has been described below. Consumer Trends Platinum group metals with good conductivity, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, ductility, catalytic activity and high density (10.4 ~ 22.4) and melting point (916 ~ 3000 ?), are widely used in aerospace industry, electronics Modern industries such as electronics, telecommunications, computer industry, photographic equipment industry, automotive industry, petrochemical industry, building materials industry and other modern science and technology and industry have an important and irreplaceable role, so called "vitamin" in modern industry. Global PGM resources are scarce, with proven metal reserves of only 71,000 t, of which South Africa, Russia, the United States and Canada account for 99% of the world total reserves. China's extreme shortage of PGM resources, proven metal reserves of only 342 t, accounting for 0.48% of the world total reserves. Globally, the annual consumption of PGMs is about 500t, which is mainly used in automobile exhaust catalysts and jewellery products, accounting for more than 80% of the total consumption of PGMs. China is a big consumer of these two types of products. For many years, China has become the largest consumer of platinum group metals, of which about 50% is consumed by automobile exhaust gas purification catalysts. 2014 China's motor vehicle ownership of about 250 million, of which about 120 million vehicles is expected by 2015, the demand for automotive exhaust catalyst will reach 655300 l / a, only this one, the demand for platinum group metals nearly 100t , While China's mineral platinum group metals less than 5 t, a great gap. The huge consumption of PGM will surely give birth to the development of the technology for the recycling of PGM scrap. At present, the technology and equipment for the recycling of PGM in China is very backward. Most of the existing PGM recovery enterprises use the original technology and extremely simple equipment, resulting in a lot of waste of resources, the problem of secondary pollution is also very prominent. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the resource distribution of PGMs in China and to analyse the current recycling technology and development direction. As the investigation progressed, the author found that the loss of precious metal scrap was not only at the export stage, but more importantly, it was controlled by the joint ventures. In order to reduce costs and avoid trade barriers, foreign large-scale precious metals companies have set up factories or set up joint ventures in China, such as Sumitomo of Japan and Heraeus of Germany. These joint ventures take advantage of capital and credit advantages, accounting for a large share of the recycling market. The joint venture company's technology is more advanced, high recovery rate, so competitive, control of the recycling channels. In addition, some foreign companies in the production process will use precious metals, such as fiberglass drawing board to use platinum and rhodium alloy. As production progresses, the performance of precious metals is reduced or constantly depleted, requiring reloading and processing. These units are typically shipped to foreign parent companies for processing, again reducing domestic waste sources. Market Trends As the investigation progressed, the author found that the loss of precious metal scrap was not only at the export stage, but more importantly; it was controlled by the joint ventures. In order to reduce costs and avoid trade barriers, foreign large-scale precious metals companies have set up factories or set up joint ventures in China, such as Sumitomo of Japan and Heraeus of Germany. These joint ventures take advantage of capital and credit advantages, accounting for a large share of the recycling market. The joint venture company's technology is more advanced, high recovery rate, so competitive, control of the recycling channels. In addition, some foreign companies in the production process will use precious metals, such as fiberglass drawing board to use platinum and rhodium alloy. As production progresses, the performance of precious metals is reduced or constantly depleted, requiring reloading and processing. These units are typically shipped to foreign parent companies for processing, again reducing domestic waste sources. At present, China annually produces about 1,000 tons of automobile exhaust gas purification catalyst. In the next few years, as vehicles with exhaust gas purification devices begin to enter the period of end-of-life in large quantities, a large number of exhaust automobile exhaust gas purification catalysts containing PGMs will need to be recycled. Cordierite, the main component of these automotive exhaust gas purification catalyst carriers, is similar in composition to other platinum group metal wastes and has similar recovery methods (wet process). According to the existing platinum group metal scrap recycling technology, the same waste water and waste disposal problems, and the wet process rhodium recovery rate is low, will result in waste of resources. According to the current status quo, develop and research more effective non-polluting recycling technology and equipment of PGM scrap, It is an urgent problem to be solved in the recycling of PGM scrap and is an important issue for the sustainable development of human society in the 21st century. The recycling of platinum group metal scrap in the developed countries such as Europe, the United States and Japan currently adopts fire melting technology. Therefore, the research on the technology and equipment for the fire melting of the platinum group metal recycling has great economic and social benefits. Fire melting smelting techniques include plasma melting, metal capture, evaporation of chlorinated gas and other methods East China Geological Exploration Bureau (ECE), a non-ferrous metal exploration and development directly under the People's Government of Jiangsu Province, recently announced that it has signed an agreement with Arafura Resource Limited, an Australian listed company, for a total consideration of A $ 22.94 million (about HK $ 140 million) , A 25% stake in Arafura Resources, for the third acquisition by a Chinese government approved by the Australian government. It is learned that the transaction will be conducted in two, the first acquisition after the signing of the agreement for a consideration of 8.5 million Australian dollars; the second will be around August this year, transactions for a consideration of 14.44 million Australian dollars, a total of 2294 Million Australian dollars. Upon completion of the transaction, East China Nonferrous Metal Geological Exploration Bureau will own 25% equity of Arafura Resources and become the largest shareholder, strategic partner and exploration and development technology consultant unit of the company. Arafura Resources is a mining company principally engaged in the exploration and development of rare earth resources. The company was listed on the Australian exchange in November 2003 and has an exploration license of more than 2,000 square kilometers in northern Australia. The core project of Arafura Resources is Nolans rare earth deposit, covers an area of nearly 1,000 square kilometers, a large reserves, mining at least 30 years. In addition, the company owns projects such as the Mt Porter and Kurinelli gold mine, the Jervois iron-vanadium project, and Hammer Hill in cooperation therewith. Development and Future Trends Development Trend Taking advantage of the mature mining and metallurgy technology in our country, the Company developed the fire melting technology and equipment for the recycling of PGM scrap to replace the current domestic technologies for the wet recycling of PGM, which can greatly reduce salt wastewater, waste residue Emissions. Relatively simple carrier can be effectively recycled, drastically reducing the recovery cost of PGMs and increasing the utilization rate of PGMs. It is the development trend of PGM scrap recycling technology in China. At present, many researchers in China have done a lot of work in R & D and industrial application of fire melting technology and equipment for the recycling of platinum group metal scrap, including the research and development of plasma melting equipment and plasma melting furnace, the high temperature electric arc furnace smelting technology Development and equipment development, metal capture technology and technology research and development. However, there are some problems, mainly due to insufficient investment, lack of pyrotechnics and talent base for R & D units, and lack of long-term development planning. Therefore, it is necessary to break the current single-play pattern of R & D institutes and manufacturing enterprises of PGM scrap recycling, make full use of the mature technological advantages of the non-ferrous smelting technology and equipment in our country, develop the fire melting technology for the recycling of PGM scrap, Equipment, so that China's platinum metal scrap recycling fire pyrolysis technology and equipment to a new level.
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