Milling & Grinding Tools Milling is the type of machining of parts using mills manually or on a machine. In this era, milling has the same distribution as turning a part or drilling. The process of milling a work piece made of a different material is to process the work piece with a milling cutter. A milling cutter is a cutting tool made in the form of a gear wheel having a plurality of blades that is clamped in a milling machine and rotating at high speed removes the layers of the workpiece surface in the desired place. Current Technological Advancement Previously, the milling machine itself worked only manually, so the percentage of rejects was large. With the use of new technologies and programming, new milling machines have appeared - with numerical program control, the use of which has facilitated and simplified the work of milling machines. Now a new type of processing has been made available and applied - with the help of a laser, so on the new machines the working element (milling cutter) has been completely replaced by a laser. The laser gives a more accurate processing of the work piece and, correspondingly, a smaller percentage of rejects. Laser processing of the surface of the work piece made it possible to combine the processing in lathe and milling machines into one process, and now a new term "milling and turning the material" has appeared. Milling process technology Depending on the type of machine, the complexity of the workpiece being processed, the material of the part used, the technology itself, through which the milling works, also differs. Technological Development as Compared to Conventional Machine First, the milling cutter selects the milling cutter, which is securely attached to the spindle of the milling machine. Workpiece preparation begins with preparation: a slight rotation of the spindle is turned on, while the part is brought to the milling cutter itself until it comes into contact with it. The dimensions of the working tool (milling cutters) are selected based on the required accuracy standard, so for the roughing type of milling it is necessary to achieve the eleventh or twelfth accuracy class, and at the final stage of milling - 8 or 9. In special cases according to the assignment, the size accuracy can correspond to 7 or 8 qualifications. Technological Development in form of numerical control (CNC) CNC milling has started to be introduced into production not so long ago, its ancestor can be considered a system of levers, which was used on conventional milling machines. The computer sets the machine and the number of revolutions of the spindle, and the parameters of its movement (linear coordinates and depth of milling). Modern CNC machines can perform 3D milling - this is the processing of a part by several working organs simultaneously, while being in different planes. Before starting the work, the operator prepares a 3D model of the part in advance on the computer, then the machine reproduces it with maximum accuracy. Grinding Tools Filts are made of felt or felt of various shapes: wheel-shaped, lenticular, cone-shaped, finger-shaped (Figure 01 below). In the centre of the filter, a small hole is made for strengthening on the cone-shaped tip. When grinding plastic prostheses, do not create a large rotational movement of the grinder, since it is possible to overheat the prosthesis and cause its deformation. Sanding of metal with filters requires accelerated rotation (up to 3000). When rotating, a denture lubricated with a grinding emulsion is applied to the brush and grinding is performed. Brushes are also used for polishing dentures. For this purpose, polishing brushes are manufactured. Major Players Worldwide, the major players are Russia, Japan and USA. The famous players are Ingersoll Milling Co., The Gleason Corporation, Cincinnati Milacron Inc, Okuma America, giddings & Lewis, Mazak Corporation and Litton Industries. Teh USA is known as the largest tool-machine consuming and producing country in the world, but Japan has seen a significant consumption growth in the era of 70’s and afterwards. The import of the tools and machine, particularly, milling and grinding, has constituted a mushrooming share in the market of the USA. An import share in machine tools domestic consumption has raised substantially morer within USA as compared to any other tool and machine consuming country. The share of Japan in the imports of USA has increased substantially in the period after 70’s, partially at the cost of UK and West German suppliers. The network of distribution in the region of the USA plays a significant part in the off-shelf tool and machine sales, particularly of the parts of milling and grinding. Target Market The targeted market is developed countries of the world. The targeted market is directly impacted by the elements of competition that are taken place in the region of USA. Standard-type tools and machine made in USA are perceived by purchasers to be lesser quality as compared to manufacturuers from less-developed countries, but the specialty quality of US tools and machine are always being rated with greater ranks. The average product prices, empirically controlled machining and lathes, centers were above the average prices, particularly for imported goods; such as products, as per the Commission’s survey respondents. Generally, the manufacturuers of amchine tool of USA require longer delivery times as compared to major other competitors. The producers of machine tool in USA generally offer better services after sales in terms of milling and grinding as compared to their other major competitors from the world, but producers of USA are ranked lower in terms of services asfter sales for standardized machines. The inventories of machine tools in terms of foreign built capacity in the USA have substantially grown in the period of recent years. The manufacturers of USA are deemed as competitive in the world markets and in the USA in terms of highly specialized tools of machinery and lesser competitive machine tools in standard type. Impact of Possible Change in technology A positive shift in type of technological advancement will call a greater amount of profit for the companies. The metalworking tools and machine from US are exported typically to Japan along with machine tools of high precision for specialise uses in terms of milling and grinding. The machine tool makers from Japan have not been able to match that technology of those machines of USA. Apparently, the US tools and machine industry is in billion and this has been possible because of rapid rise and advancement in technology. The machineries are heavily traded in the market, thus, a positive shift will call a positive change and vice versa. In order to understand the trade policies, it is imperative initially to understand the structure of industry in global terms. The machine industry of the USA is now the second largest industry in the world after Japan. In Western region, the most of the industry is comprised of specialized and smaller producers as compared to other competitors, apart from Japan. The utilization of capacity has substantially dropped in the industry from the period of 70’s. there had been various mergers occurred but they were not worthwhile significantly in number as far as the number of firms within industry is considered in the eras of 70’s and 80’s. but there is an expectation to have a rise in upcoming time period. There is an immense amount of expenditure incurred in the domain of R&D on machine which are mostly supported by public sector in major producing countries of the world. The major producers of machine have more chances to attain capital away from firms as compared to US producers and thus, will have more accessibility towards capital. The assembly and production of these machines are mostly happening in the region of the US. All these mentioned points are related to change in trade policies across the world.